Vol. III (2022), No. 1

Jeremy Cripps
University of Maryland, USA 

Review article
DOI:  https://doi.org/10.47954/ijcbe.3.1.4
JEL Classification: L25, L66


Worldwide indexes confirm supply chain disruptions are ‘historically high’ and as the Economist makes clear ‘uncertainty lies ahead.’ After Covid 19, and now in the context of the war in Ukraine, “disaster” is real. The purpose of this paper is first to identify the levers, the key visible breakdowns in Covid 19 impacted supply chains. Then to identify the fulcra” that maybe “really important and relevant” to supply chain change. Resilience to pandemic breakdown in supply change are considered in five key areas. The resilience of supplier networks has been tested. Despite measured environmental benefits from reduced traffic delivery delays. Despite significant growth in the air cargo market delays are only just past their peak. The resilience of employment is being challenged as greater productivity, happier and health workers and lower emissions has demonstrated the importance of ‘the physical dimension’ of work and opportunities taken to switch occupations. The resilience of the component parts of products and services has become the new watchword as interruptions in the source and supply of critical components has promoted search for substitutes. Reshoring and reinvention identify how bringing back, with innovative technology, a skilled workforce, tax incentives, means improved innovation and product differentiation. The resilience of supply chains to adapt quickly is marked by the prominence of consulting firms who have advanced supply chain monitoring technology and weaponized the supply chain. The trend for economic spheres to develop to insulate companies from geopolitical concerns. There is an ongoing acceleration of slowbalization. The resilience of technology means reshoring of the apparel, food, and beverage industries, among others, is becoming cost-effective. Predictive control strategy, still in its infancy, with modelling and optimization is becoming the work horse for supply chain management. The paper concludes with an assessment of the levers and fulcra for supply change.

Key words: supply chain change; supply chain disruptions; supply chain symptoms; supply chain resilience

Full text

Download PDF here (pp. 36-46).


Air Cargo Market Analysis. (2021). IATA Economics. https://www.iata.org/en/iata-repository/publications/economic-reports/air-freight-monthly-analysis—october-2021/

Akins N (2022) Leadership, 5 Keys to Building Change Resilience for You and Your Team, Training Industry website at https://trainingindustry.com/magazine/jan-feb-2020/5-keys-to-building-change-resilience-for-you-and-your-team/

Bain (2022) Supply Chain, Bain & Company from https://www.bain.com/consulting-services/operations/supply-chain.

Bell E, and Weiland, (2007) London (the other New York), New York Magazine, March 16, 2007

Burke R, (2021) Reshoring Opens Door to Smart Factory Opportunities, Deloitte Content, Wall Street Journal from https://deloitte.wsj.com/articles/reshoring-opens-door-to-smart-factory-opportunities-01636392221

Can Walmart Catch Amazon In E-commerce? (2020, August). CNBC. Retrieved February 21, 2022, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XuO2EqRddHM

Cage A, (2021) The Great American Walkout, The National Fund for Workforce Solutions website at https://nationalfund.org/great-american-walkout/

Castrillon, C (2021) This is the Future of Remote work in 2021, Forbes Magazine available at https://www.forbes.com/sites/carolinecastrillon/2021/12/27/this-is-the-future-of-remote-work-in-2021/?sh=7e76c9f61e1d

Chambers, S. (2022, January 10). Containers taking twice as long to reach their destination compared to pre-pandemic period. Splash247. Retrieved February 22, 2022, from https://splash247.com/containers-taking-twice-as-long-to-reach-their-destination-compared-to-pre-pandemic-period/

Hale, T., Angrist, N., Goldszmidt, R., Kira, B., Petherick, A., Phillips, T., Webster, S., Cameron-Blake, E., Hallas, L., Majumdar, S., and Tatlow, H. (2021) ‘A global panel database of pandemic policies (Oxford COVID-19 Government Response Tracker)’. Nature Human Behaviour. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41562-021-01079-8

Cooper J (2022) How Automation Enables Manufacturing Reshoring, SME website at https://www.sme.org/technologies/articles/2022/january/how-automation-enables-manufacturing-reshoring/

De Backer, K. et al. (2016), “Reshoring: Myth or Reality?”, OECD Science, Technology and Industry Policy Papers, No. 27, OECD Publishing, Paris. http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5jm56frbm38s-en

Drucker P, (1954) The Practice of Management, Harper Collins, Chapter 28, p 353. http://www.fao.org/3/ca9733en/ca9733en.pdf (access 5 March 2021)

Economist (2019) A New Kind of Cold War, The economist magazine available at https://www.economist.com/leaders/2019/05/16/a-new-kind-of-cold-war
Economist (2022) Chain Reactions, Economist print edition Jan 22, 2022
Economist (2022) Reinventing Globalization, leader issue June 18, 2022

Fenell Z (2022) How Technology Has Improved Communication, Techwalla website at https://www.techwalla.com/articles/how-technology-has-improved-communication

Fieldman M (2021) It’s Not “The Great Resignation.” It’s Actually “The Great Recognition,” Manufacturing Innovation Blog on the NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) website at https://www.nist.gov/blogs/manufacturing-innovation-blog/its-not-great-resignation-its-actually-great-recognition

Flexport Research (2022) 2021 in Review https://www.flexport.com/research/health-happiness-and-bottlenecks-the-state-of-trade-in-2022/.

Friedman, A. (2021). New Flexport Index Shows Ocean Times Along Trade Routes. Sourcing Journal. https://sourcingjournal.com/topics/logistics/flexport-ocean-timeline-indicator-trade-routes-freight-cargo-port-shipping-316692/

Gartner (2022) 9 Future of Work Trends Post-Covid 19: Long-Term Impact & Actions, A Gartner Trend Insight Report, from https://www.gartner.com/en/doc/745430-future-of-work-trends

Gartner (2022) Alternatives to Zoom available at https://www.gartner.com/reviews/market/meeting-solutions/vendor/zoom/alternatives

Heilweil, R. (2021, November 5). Shipping is broken. Here’s how to fix it. VOX. Retrieved February 21, 2022, from https://www.vox.com/recode/2021/11/5/22764088/supply-chain-shipping-delays-logistics

Hicks, J. (2021, November 18). Ford and GM are getting into chip development to help deal with the shortage. The Verge. Retrieved February 21, 2022, from https://www.theverge.com/2021/11/18/22789413/ford-gm-chip-shortage-globalfoundries-qualcomm-tsmc

Inside Amazon’s New $1.5 Billion Air Hub. (2021a, December). Scribbr. Retrieved February 21, 2022, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r62SB4dOtec

Intel (2022) Lead with Innovation, includes video “Invest in US Chipmaking Now” from https://www.intel.com/content/www/us/en/corporate/usa-chipmaking/home.html

Kagan, R (2016) Why American must lead, The Catalyst, A journal of ideas from the George Bush Institute, Issue 2016 No 1

Lambert T, (2021) A History of London, https://localhistories.org/a-history-of-london/

Lillo, B (2022) The supply chain disaster is actually good news – for these three reasons, MarketWatch website available at https://www.marketwatch.com/story/the-supply-chain-disaster-is-actually-good-news-for-these-3-reasons-11640782957

Mach1 (2022) Four major types of freight transportation available, from the Mach 1 Global Logistics website at https://www.mach1global.com/four-major-types-of-freight-transportation/

McKinsey (2022) The Future of Work after Covid-19, Executive Summary, from https://www.mckinsey.com/featured-insights/future-of-work/the-future-of-work-after-covid-19#

Mohn, T. (2020). The Traffic Trade-Off. New York Times.

Nauta, S (2021) Ensuring a fair future of work, Leaders, The World Ahead 2022, published by the Economist, London, p 21

Northam J (2014) AS Overseas Costs Rise, more US companies are reshoring, from https://www.npr.org/sections/parallels/2014/01/22/265080779/as-overseas-costs-rise-more-u-s-companies-are-reshoring

Newburgh (2021) Newburgh City New York, USA from https://www.newburghny.org/reshoring-united-states/

Parker T, (2022) Will Technology Impact Manufacturing Reshoring? NAIOP website from https://www.naiop.org/en/Research-and-Publications/Magazine/2021/Summer-2021/Business-Trends/Will-Technology-Impact-Manufacturing-Reshoring

Perea-Lopez E, Ydstie E, Grossman I (2003) A model predictive control strategy for supply chain optimization, Computers & Chemical Engineering, Vol 27, Issues 8-9. Pp 1201-1218

Pifer S (2022) The Russia-Ukraine war at three months, Brookings online at https://www.brookings.edu/blog/order-from-chaos/2022/05/23/the-russia-ukraine-war-at-three-months/

Popken, B. (2022, January 13). Consumer prices rose by 7 percent in December over previous year, marking third straight month of high inflation. NBC News. Retrieved February 22, 2022, from https://www.nbcnews.com/business/economy/consumer-prices-rose-7-percent-december-previous-year-marking-third-st-rcna11668

PwC (2020) PwC (PricewaterhouseCoopers) Predictions for 2020, from https://www.pwc.com/gx/en/research-insights/economy/global-economy-watch/predictions-2020.html

PwC (2022) PwC Pulse Survey: Next in Work, from https://www.pwc.com/us/en/library/pulse-survey/future-of-work.html?WT.mc_id=CT3-PL300-DM1-TR1-LS2-ND30-PR2-CN_FFG-library&gclid=EAIaIQobChMIwuWXwMaw9gIVqw2tBh27kAu0EAAYASAAEgKEw_D_BwE&gclsrc=aw.ds

Rapp, N (2022) Global Growth Gathers Speed, Fortune February/March 2022 page 108. Data provided by Center for Economics and Business Research

Reshorenow (2022) Companies Reshoring, The Reshoring Initiative from https://reshorenow.org/companies-reshoring/

Schwarz, J. (2020, September 1). Zoom Meetings Demand Leads to Stock Explosion, More Channel Hype. Channel Futures. Retrieved February 21, 2022, from https://www.channelfutures.com/business-models/zoom-meetings-demand-leads-to-stock-explosion-more-channel-hype

Shih W (2021) Everybody Now WNTA Supply Chains to be ‘Resilient.’ It Won’t be Easy – or Likely, Wall St Journal, Journal Reports, Year in Review from https://www.wsj.com/articles/supply-chain-resilient-11638302050

Shankland S (2021) Intel’s chip recovery plan could restore US manufacturing prowess, from https://www.cnet.com/tech/computing/features/intels-chip-recovery-plan-could-restore-us-manufacturing-prowess/

Simchi-Levi, D, Schmidt, W, and Yehua Wei (2014) From Superstorms to Factory Fires: Managing Unpredictable Supply Chain Disruptions, Harvard Business Review website at https://hbr.org/2014/01/from-superstorms-to-factory-fires-managing-unpredictable-supply-chain-disruptions

SmithGambrellRussell (2021) Global Supply Chains and Onshoring, SGRLaw website from https://sgrlaw.com/practices/global-supply-chains-and-onshoring-manufacturing/

Smith, J. (2021). Where Are All the Truck Drivers? Shortage Adds to Delivery Delays. Wall Street Journal. https://www.wsj.com/articles/truck-driver-shortage-supply-chain-issues-logistics-11635950481

Spence M (2021) Why are Supply Chains Blocked? On the Council on Foreign Relations website at https://www.cfr.org/blog/why-are-supply-chains-blocked

Symes, S. (2021, November 23). Toyota Busts The Car Microchip Shortage. Motoroius. Retrieved February 21, 2022, from https://www.motorious.com/articles/features-3/toyota-busts-microchip-shortage/

The top supply chain consulting firms in the US for 2021. (2021, May 12). Consulting.US. Retrieved February 21, 2022, from https://www.consulting.us/news/6005/the-top-supply-chain-consulting-firms-in-the-us-for-2021

Zezas M (2022) Morgan Stanley: Investors Needs To Understand Something Else The Russian Offensive May Bring About, Head of Public Policy Research from https://www.zerohedge.com/markets/morgan-stanley-investors-needs-understand-something-else-russian-offensive-may-bring-about

Tables and Figures